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GM-CSF molecule in blood stream

EVIDENCE OF ELEVATED GM-CSF IN COVID-19 PATIENTS

Hospitalized Patients

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GM-CSF is elevated early and scales with disease severity in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. A recent study examined the levels of GM-CSF in the plasma of hospitalized COVID-19 patients stratified by their peak illness. Baseline CRP levels at hospital admission were also examined in these patients, which also scaled with disease severity.

Plasma GM-CSF and CRP levels correlate with disease severity

Serum GM-CSF Levels

Serum GM-CSF Levels

Serum CRP Levels

Serum CRP Levels

Graph depicting serum GM-CSF levels

Hospitalized COVID-19 patients had elevated levels of GM-CSF compared to healthy controls and non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19

Plasma GM-CSF levels trended higher as patients required increasing levels of oxygen support

Plasma GM-CSF levels were most pronounced in patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation or died of COVID-19

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Correlation With Mechanical Ventilation and Death

Elevated levels of GM-CSF were associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation.

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Calendar highlighting first 4 days

In patients who ultimately required mechanical ventilation, GM-CSF was detected within the first 4 days of symptoms

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Lungs

In COVID-19 patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), GM-CSF was identified as part of a plasma chemokine signature in cytokine storm

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10 times

GM-CSF levels were almost 10-fold higher in patients who died of COVID-19 compared to those who did not

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For US Healthcare Professionals Only

References:

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Thwaites RS, Sanchez Sevilla Uruchurtu A, Siggins MK, et al. Inflammatory profiles across the spectrum of disease reveal a distinct role for GM-CSF in severe COVID-19. Sci Immunol. 2021;6(57):eabg9873. 

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Wang G, Wu C, Zhang Q, et al. C-reactive protein level may predict the risk of COVID-19 aggravation. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020;7(5):ofaa153.

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Blot M, Bour JB, Quenot JP, et al. The dysregulated innate immune response in severe COVID-19 pneumonia that could drive poorer outcome. J Transl Med. 2020;18(1):457.

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Hue S, Beldi-Ferchiou A, Bendib I, et al. Uncontrolled innate and impaired adaptive immune responses in patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202(11):1509-1519.